Tagged: Biological Psychiatry

Reply to: Aberrant Brain Activity in Individuals With Psychopathy Links to Receptor Distribution, Gene Expression, and Behavior

Dukart et al. have provided a correspondence that builds on our suggestion (1) to conduct multimodal neuroimaging in order to elucidate the relationship between serotonin function and brain circuits of aggression. They use multimodal neuroimaging data to investigate psychopathy, which they use as a model for aggression. They find that aberrant brain activity in psychopathic individuals associates with a specific receptor distribution, gene expression, and behavior. Their model is based on linking population-based atlases of neurotransmitters to aberrant brain activity in psychopathic individuals, whereby they report a spatial correspondence between serotonin 1A receptor binding and aberrant brain activity.

Aberrant Brain Activity in Individuals With Psychopathy Links to Receptor Distribution, Gene Expression, and Behavior

A recent review article discussed the role of serotonin in aggressive behavior (1). The authors concluded that low endogenous serotonin levels represent a neurobiological trait risk factor for impulsive aggression but that further multimodal research is needed to elucidate the relationship between serotonin function and brain circuits of aggression. Recent advances in multimodal data fusion and availability of open multimodal data resources now allow for a direct evaluation of such questions at various levels integrating genetics, multimodal imaging, and behavior.

Distinct patterns of abnormal lateral orbitofrontal cortex activity during compulsive grooming and reversal learning normalize after fluoxetine

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) display disrupted performance and abnormal lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) activity during reversal learning tasks, yet it is unknown whether compulsions and reversal learning deficits share a common neural substrate. To answer this question, we measured neural activity with in vivo calcium imaging in LOFC during compulsive grooming and reversal learning before and after fluoxetine treatment.

Reclassifying the unique inhibitory properties of social-support-figures: A roadmap for exploring prepared fear suppression

Recent work has revealed that social-support-cues are powerful inhibitors of the fear-response. They are endowed with a unique combination of inhibitory properties, enabling them to both inhibit fear in the short-term and reduce fear in the long-term. While these findings had previously been thought to suggest that social-support-cues belong to a category of prepared safety stimuli, mounting evidence clearly shows that the mechanisms underlying safety-signaling cannot account for the unique effects of social-support-cues.

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