Tagged: AJCN

Prenatal perception of breastfeeding recommendation predicts early breastfeeding outcomes of participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

ABSTRACT Background Prenatal psychosocial factors predict breastfeeding practices but are not assessed in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Objective This study examined how prenatal perceptions of WIC’s breastfeeding recommendations were associated with early breastfeeding outcomes. Methods This study used longitudinal data from a national sample of 2,053 pregnant participants in the WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (WIC ITFPS-2) in 2013, the only national data assessing prenatal perceptions of WIC’s breastfeeding recommendations. Early breastfeeding outcomes included breastfeeding initiation, breastmilk first fed after birth, breastfeeding in the first hour, breastmilk first fed after leaving...

Bone turnover in pregnancy, measured by urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), is influenced by vitamin D supplementation and is associated with maternal bone health: Findings from the MAVIDOS trial

AbstractBackgroundThe pattern of change in maternal bone turnover throughout pregnancy is poorly characterized.ObjectiveWe investigated changes across pregnancy in a marker of maternal bone resorption, urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), the influence of gestational vitamin D supplementation, and associations between CTX and maternal postnatal bone indices.DesignThe Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study (MAVIDOS) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 1000 IU/day cholecalciferol vs placebo from 14 weeks’ gestation to birth. Maternal second void urinary α- and β-CTX were measured (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) at 14 and 34 weeks’ gestation; DXA was performed within 2 weeks post-partum. Mann-Whitney...

Nutrient composition of preterm mother’s milk and factors that influence nutrient content

ABSTRACTBackgroundBreast milk feedings are the optimal feeding choice for premature infants. Clinicians depend on accurate nutrient profiles of the breast milk in order to make informed decisions regarding the need for nutrient supplementation. Existing data for nutrient composition of preterm breast milk are dated and not representative of the current population of women delivering prematurely in the United States.ObjectivesThe purpose of this prospective, longitudinal, single-center observational study was to measure the macronutrient and micronutrient composition of breast milk expressed by mothers, including women who self-identify as black, delivering preterm infants at ≤33 completed weeks of gestation.MethodsWe collected breast milk samples...

Neither low salivary amylase activity, cooling cooked white rice, nor single nucleotide polymorphisms in starch-digesting enzymes reduce glycemic index or starch digestibility: a randomized, crossover trial in healthy adults

ABSTRACTBackgroundIt was suggested that low salivary-amylase activity (SAA) and cooling or stir-frying cooked starch decreases its digestibility and glycemic index.ObjectiveWe determined the effects of SAA, cooling, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the salivary amylase (AMY1), pancreatic amylase (AMY2A, AMY2B), maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) genes on starch digestibility and glycemic index of cooked polished rice.MethodsHealthy subjects [pilot, n = 12; main, n = 20 with low-SAA (<50 U/mL), and n = 20 with high-SAA (>105 U/mL)] consumed test meals containing 25 g (pilot) or 50 g (main) available carbohydrate at a contract research organization using open-label (pilot) or assessor-blinded (main), randomized, crossover, Latin-square designs (trial registration: NCT03667963). Pilot-trial...

Long-term dietary protein intake and subjective cognitive decline in US men and women

ABSTRACTBackgroundDiet is one of the modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline. However, studies on dietary protein intake and cognitive decline have remained limited and inconclusive.ObjectivesIn this study, we aimed to investigate the associations between long-term dietary protein intake and subsequent subjective cognitive decline (SCD).MethodsWe included 49,493 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (1984–2006) and 27,842 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) (1986–2002). For the NHS, average dietary intake was calculated from 7 repeated semi-quantitative FFQs (SFFQs), and SCD was assessed in 2012 and 2014. For the HPFS, average dietary intake was calculated from 5 repeated SFFQs, and...

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